Chapter 1

Mongrel2 is a web server. HTTP requests come in, HTTP responses go out. Request, response. There is nothing revolutionary or extravagant in what Mongrel2 does with a browser, apart from supporting fancy asynchronous socket protocols. To the browser, Mongrel2 is just this nice web server that has WebSockets and Flash Sockets in it. That’s it.

What makes Mongrel2 special is how it satisfies these requests in a language agnostic and asynchronous way using a simple messaging protocol to talk to applications; not just serve files. Mongrel2 is also designed to be incredibly easy to automatically manage it as part of your infrastructure.

Other web servers do some of these things, but they either do them in a bastardized way or not all of them at once. Plenty of language specific web servers like Node.js and Jetty have asynchronous operation, but they’re not language agnostic1. Other web servers will let you talk to any language as a backend, but they insist on using HTTP proxying or FastCGI, which is not friendly to asynchronous operations.

Mongrel2 is the only web server I know of that actively tries to focus on these features as a cohesive whole.

Note 1: TL;DR!

Don’t want to read the manual?2 You can read the Getting Started page, available in many languages even. It’s a fast crash course in getting Mongrel2 up and running.

1.1 Language Agnostic

The term “language agnostic” came from people who read about Mongrel2 in the early days, and it means that Mongrel2 does not try to promote any one language over any others. Mongrel2 does not care if you run a “Python shop”, or if you’re a die hard PHP fan, or if you hate PHP and love only Ruby on Rails. Mongrel2 only knows about HTTP requests, HTTP responses, async messages, and getting them to your gear to meet those requirements.

Language Agnosticism is the most important feature of Mongrel2, and its entire purpose stems from the desire to reduce the amount of programming language religion in the world. Real people want to get things done, not wanker on which technology is the best or force other people to use their favorite toys. Instead, Mongrel2 works to just be great for every language and make it easy to use what works best for a given problem.

1.2 Asynchronous

Many web servers are “asynchronous” internally, and some force you to know way too much about how they work internally to get anything done. What makes Mongrel2’s version of asynchronous messaging different is that it extends to outside the Mongrel2 server. This is a powerful concept that even your backends can operate asynchronously using simple identification of connected clients.

Other servers assume that every request is received by a browser, then sent to a backend, and then directly sent out to the client and that’s it. Mongrel2 assumes that there is a connected client, and it sends requests to backends, but it makes no assumptions about how those backends respond to the clients. All it requires is that the backend application send messages addressed to the client and it will write them on the socket.

Because of this design, Mongrel2 can easily house both classic HTTP clients, keep-alive style HTTP clients, chunked encoding responses, JSSockets, or WebSockets using the same code.

1.3 Message Protocol

In order to properly do asynchronous messaging in a language agnostic way, Mongrel2 needed a good base protocol that allowed for different messaging styles and worked with many different languages. HTTP proxying already does this, although it’s not asynchronous at all. What gives Mongrel2 its special powers is ZeroMQ, a language- and transport-mechanism-agnostic messaging system that does not require a centralized messaging server to operate.

Using ZeroMQ lets Mongrel2 talk to a huge number of languages, operate within any kind of network architecture, and do it with a very simple communication model and API that most programmers can understand.

1.4 Application Oriented

Web servers today are written as if it was still 1995 and all anyone needs to do is serve files, maybe some graphics. Today’s web applications are not about serving files; they’re about serving application logic and doing it asynchronously. The advent of the bewildering numbers of ways to hack HTTP into an async messaging protocol3 is proof enough that the pressure is on for web servers to be for applications with highly interactive interfaces.

Mongrel2 can still serve files just fine. In fact, it’s got very accurate and easy-to-understand file serving code. However, Mongrel2 will always be about applications. Fast, scalable, awesome, asynchronous or synchronous applications that need to use languages that mere mortals can work with, like PHP. If there’s ever a choice, apps win.

1.5 Automated Management

The language agnostic philosophy even extends to the configuration system, where you can use any language you need to configure it and manage it, as long as the results are a SQLite3 database Mongrel2 can read and work with to run. There are great tools for managing this database already written in Python and C, but if you hate Python or C then you can write anything you want.

This pattern is established with servers like Postfix, Exim, Sendmail, qmail, and others, that convert configuration files to half-assed SQL databases. Mongrel2 effectively adopts a Model-View-Controller design for its configuration system, the same way every web application is designed today. The Model is a SQLite3 database file, which any programming language can access. The Controller is a Mongrel2 process that reads this file and sets itself up accordingly.

The View is a C binary (with no dependencies other than SQLite3 and ZeroMQ) called m2sh that gives you a command line “UI” to configure and setup the Mongrel2 sqlite model. It gives you commands for managing it, crafting configurations, looking at them; the works.

But, most importantly, you can write your own. You don’t have to wait for a Mongrel2 developer to craft a configuration file parser for your favorite language, or use some hack job Nagios Perl junk to automate or scan it. It’s SQLite3 with a solid, simple schema and even a well written Python and/or C code example showing you how it works.

Nothing stops you from automating the hell out of Mongrel2 with that.

1.6 Using This Manual

This manual is intended to be fun to read, so probably the best way to use it is to actually read it.

I know, revolutionary, right? I mean, who has time to read and learn about something these days? You just want to get in there and get whatever problem you have done, now! No time for words. You just want a straight dump right into your brain so that you are able to solve all your problems instantly and screw all this talking.

Did you ever ask yourself if this attitude about not wanting to read and learn is possibly the reason you always get stuck in emergencies with no time to read and learn?

Something to think about.

My recommendation is that you go through every page of this manual and do the stuff in it. Even if you think you won’t need something, because you’re not a programmer, or you’re not in operations, you should learn it. Doing so will make the parts you do need clearer and give you better ideas for later.

1Who the hell wants to code Javascript all day? Yuck.

2I guess you’ll be one of the first people with questions then.

3Comet, long poll, Juggernaut, etc.